These are the types of irrigation methods that

  • Surface irrigation method
  • Drip irrigation method
  • Sprinkler irrigation


Surface irrigation method:

With the aid of gravitational forces, the water is applied on the field. Surface irrigation makes up around 85% worldwide.


Drip irrigation method:

Water is supplied to the soil by emitters in the form of small drops. It decreases water losses, minimizes weed development, and improves productivity.

  • Sprinkler irrigation technique
  • Sprinkler irrigation supplies works by spraying water on the field.


Surface irrigation:

Surface irrigation is mostly used in orchards, field crops, and other agricultural fields. With the help of pipes, canals, or other means, gravity is used to provide water from the source to the crop. The effectiveness of this method is dependent on the type of soil, crop, and other factors. The method with the highest water loss is among all irrigation methods. It is therefore considered to be the least efficient. There are 3 main types of surface irrigation.

  • Furrow irrigation
  • Basin irrigation
  • Border irrigation

This water is irrigated into the field by placing furrows at intervals of 0.1 to 3 meters. It requires less technical knowledge than drip and sprinkler techniques. Furrow method also needs less capital investment. This method is challenging for controlling water flow. It is suitable to irrigate rows of crops like maize, or sorghum. Higher infiltration rates are needed for higher fields. For fields with lower slopes, higher inflow rates will be required to evenly irrigate them. Siphon tubes are usually used to deliver water from the ditches to furrows.


Basin irrigation

It is one of many types of surface irrigation. It involves the preparation of an irrigation basin that is proportional to the tree’s height. It is mostly used for orchards. Each basin is connected to the other via irrigation channels. This allows water to flow from one basin in the first basin to the next by irrigating another. This method of irrigation could lead to the contamination of pests or diseases between different trees by using irrigation water. Inter cultivation is also possible with this type of irrigation.


Border irrigation

It is an older method of irrigation. This method is used to divide the field into blocks. The borders are then made using earth. This allows water to flow through dikes that separate the sloping area into rectangular strips, with no drainage at an end. The purpose of dikes is to stop water flowing across the field. This method works best on fields with slopes.


Drip irrigation

This system of irrigation provides water to the crop primarily for their consumptive uses. Drip irrigation has the highest water efficiency of all irrigation methods. Drip irrigation is the preferred method of irrigation in the most arid areas of the globe. The main problems with the arid area are limited water resources, undulated ground, and poor irrigation. Drip irrigation can solve both of these issues.

It is composed of four main parts: suction and regulation, control, and discharge. These are done by water lifting pumps, hydro cyclone filters, fertilizer mixture tanks, screen filters, pressure regulators, water meter and mainline filters, as well as drippers and lateral drippers. Water lifting pumps are essential to provide water at pressure. After being lifted, water passes through hydro cyclone, sand, fertilizer mixing tanks, screen filter, and finally, drippers. These filters are crucial to ensure that water flows smoothly through drippers. Without them, pipes can become clogged.


Different types of drip irrigation:

  • High Pressure drip irrigation system works at 30 PSI or higher.
  • Low Pressure Drip Irrigation System: It operates at less than 30 PSI.


Benefits of drip irrigation:

  • It helps to save approximately 30-70% water.
  • It saves labor.
  • Use of hillsy terrain
  • It also reduces the problem of weeds.
  • It increases the yield, vigor, growth and productivity of plants.
  • Facilitate intercultural activities
  • Fertilizer application can be effected easily
  • Many diseases are less common.
  • It is best for light soils.
  • Usage of low-quality drinking water